Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE. Script developed independently at least five times in human history in Serbia , Mesopotamia , Egypt , the Indus civilization , lowland Mesoamerica , and China. During this era, literacy was “a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production”. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.
A History: ’s Word of the Year
Jews and temple treasures. Nehemiah rebuilds in 52 days. Ptolemy I takes Jerusalem. Antiochus III takes over. Antiochus IV religious persecution. After years the Jews rule Jerusalem and Judea for the next 80 years.
Marks. Those pieces marked “R.S. Prussia” in red lettering surrounded by a green wreath were made at the turn of the last century. This is sometimes referenced as the “red mark” by collectors.
Antique Welmar China Makers of Antique German China With the success of Meissen came the opening of dozens of porcelain factories as the rulers of different German states and regions vied to dominate the European and American markets. Many well-known names in the porcelain industry got their start in Germany at that time. Frankenthal porcelain was founded in in Frankenthal, Germany and was famous for its elaborate figurines.
The factory flourished in the 18th century, and while some copies of original pieces have been issued, the original Frankenthal factory is no longer in operation. The figures are recognized by their doll-like faces and arched bases. The backstamp includes a lion or crown, in honor of the royal house. Konigliche Porzellan Manufaktur is also known as K.
Royal Dux Porcelain
The people who formed different movements within christian thought in the 17th century read the English Bible dilligently – and reached different conclusions. A Quaker defense of their interpretation of scriptures is included in An epistle from the Quakers to the Governor of Barbados in The debate between Bunyan and the Quakers was carried out by pamphlet war between and – Now made availabale on the web by Larry Kuenning.
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Adam of Bremen names “rex Godafridus” as the Danish leader against whom Emperor Charlemagne made war . Einhard records a dispute between “Drasconem ducem Abodritorum” and “Godelaibum alium ducem…et cum eis filium fratris sui…Reginoldum”, the latter being killed in . Einhard records that “Thrasco dux Abodritorum” was killed by “hominibus Godofridi” in “emporie Rerie” in .
The Royal Frankish Annals also record that King Godefrid attacked the Obotrites in and destroyed their commercial centre at Reria . He attacked the Frisians in . Einhard records the death of “Godefrido Danorum rege” in and the succession of “Hemmingus filius fratris eius” . The Annales Fuldenses record the death in of “Godafrido Danorum rege”, the succession by “Hemmingus filius fratris eius”, and the latter making peace with the emperor .
Identification of Bayonets
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Examples of Fake R.S. Prussia Porcelain and Marks. Some of the characteristics of R.S. Prussia reproductions include: Thick, Heavy Pieces – Genuine pieces are generally very fine and delicate in comparison to reproductions, which are sometimes so heavy they resemble pottery more than porcelain.; Crazing – Some reproductions exhibit crazing in the inferior glaze.
Prussia in antique publications prior to is incorrect. Although not known until long after the fact, a detailed history of the ownership and economic fortunes of the Reinhold Schlegelmilch Porcelain Factory was described in Brend Hartwich’s thesis. Information in his thesis was not available in America until the translation was published in Int’l Society R. Perhaps the best discussion of the inaccuracies concerning Reinhold’s porcelain factory can be found in the first part of Capers Notes on the Marks of Prussia, Alphabet Printing Inc.
For a long time, it was thought that Reinhold and Erdmann were brothers who jointly owned or ran the factory at Suhl, Germany. In actual fact, there were two factories in Suhl, Erdmann’s and Reinhold’s. Contrary to folklore, these two operations were in direct competition with each other. Reinhold’s factory was founded and initially owned by Reinhold, and subsequently with his two sons, Ehrhard and Arnold.
Arnold took over an existing porcelain factory in Tillowitz in , and continued to run it as part of the Reinhold Schlegelmilch enterprise until he died in Erdmann’s factory, in contrast, was founded and originally owned by Leonhard Schlegelmilch. Oscar Schlegelmilch eventually started his own factory in Langenwiesen, and Julius eventually took over the ownership of Erdmann’s Suhl operation.
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Over the years I have seen so many versions and on so many lovely pieces, it is hard to keep those creeping doubts from screaming at you: Yet, in our research, we have often found that there are several meanings attached. However, Royal Vienna was not their official name. However, it should be pointed out that this term is also being used by others to refer to the style of certain items, not necessarily their origin or maker. However, this is exactly where more doubts creep in… There are so many copies and imitations of the beehive mark, it can make your head spin.
Not only was this mark forged almost immediately upon the original factory being auctioned off by the King because of financial difficulties, but this mark is also found to be used in several variations even to this day, sometimes by Trading companies or Importers.
The Marks of R.S. Prussia. Not all Prussia pieces are marked and up to 50% of pieces may not be marked. Because fakes and replicas or reproductions abound, it is extremely important to be knowledgeable of the Prussia marks, molds, and transfers in determining authenticity.
Even the finial lid is floral encrusted. Precious cherubs in flight, flanking each side. Hand painted and hand decorated. Reticulated designs on lids and pedestal necks. Only on close examination did we find the typical fleabites on flower petals — only 3 see pictures. An additional indication of the older age is the circled Germany mark, found on older pieces from Germany to identify country of origin.
Notice the mark is only in outline form, not solid as those shown in the books — as though they weren’t yet quite sure of its final look. Ready for hanging on the wall.
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Other sought after marks include RS Germany, RS Suhl, and RS Poland. Due to it’s higher value, the RS Prussia mark has been forged and copied since the late s. New RS Suhl appeared in the early s, and now, in , RS Germany and RS Poland are being reproduced.
However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments. Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory e. K and discretionary e. Nor the evils of the worldwide Islamic Inquisition which — not in the 16th century but now, in the 21st, condemns Muslim apostates to barbaric execution.
Instead, aggressive White androphobes of all genders which I can no longer count are decimating the philogynous and egalitarian West. Equality psychos are tearing down the most egalitarian society that ever existed except for initial communist experiments, before they turned bloody. American Jews, at the apex of the greatest fortune and philosemitic tolerance their long diaspora has ever bestowed on their kind, are busy supporting all the ideologies and policies that demolish their safe harbor and build up their Muslim, Black and Third World enemies.